Free Parking:
Is it the Secret Ingredient
in NYC’s Traffic Problem?

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Adi Talwar

As development has rushed north along Webster Avenue in the Bronx, what used to be a lonely stretch of road bracketed by train tracks and a cemetery is now usually chock full of cars.

After floundering for more than a decade, it seems 2019 may finally be the year New York approves a congestion pricing plan. Not only is the governor behind it, but a growing number of state lawmakers say they support charging drivers a fee to enter Manhattan’s business district, spurred by worsening gridlock on city streets and a cash-strapped public transit system in crisis.

But one element in the great traffic debate has gotten less attention: parking policy. If it makes sense to charge cars to drive on the city’s busiest streets, thereby discouraging auto use and speeding up traffic, wouldn’t it make sense to do something similar for parking? Many transit experts say yes, arguing that New York’s parking spaces are grossly underpriced in a city so pressed for space.

While about 85,000 of the city’s parking spots in commercial areas require drivers to feed the meter, a much larger number—about 97 percent of the city’s on-street parking spaces, experts say —are free, a fact that Jemilah Magnusson, communications director at the Institute for Transportation & Development Policy, calls “fairly ridiculous” considering the cost of land and availability of other transit options in New York.

“You are causing more congestion, you are adding to the emissions, you’re taking up valuable space in a city that doesn’t have a lot of space, and that needs to be priced,” she says.

A growing problem?

Whatever monetary savings drivers get from free street parking, they pay for it with their time: A 2017 study found that New York’s drivers spend 107 hours a year searching for a spot, the most of the 10 cities it analyzed. Parking problems were also identified as a quality-of-life issue by two dozen of the city’s Community Boards in their annual budget requests for the last fiscal year, with a number of boards seeking funds for new parking facilities—including nine requests for more NYPD precinct parking, and another from Manhattan’s CB4 for a garage to house charter and tour buses.

“This community has households with up to 3 or 4 cars and we are in desperate need of parking,” reads one request from Brooklyn’s CB15, which includes Sheepshead Bay and Gerritsen Beach.

Several boards sought funds to hire more traffic enforcement officers to crackdown on illegal parking in their districts; others asked the city to install more parking meters. Some requested parking studies be done of problem areas, and Brooklyn’s CD18 asked for “large tire booting devices” so its local police could “combat the illegal parking of large 18-wheeler trucks and car carriers in our neighborhoods.”

Parking policies can have other consequences, too—in most of the city, zoning rules require new development to be built with a certain amount of off-street parking, which advocates say drives up the cost of housing. Curb space set aside for free parking could alternatively be used for things like bike lanes, bus stops or loading zones for deliveries.

“Parking comes at the expense of things that everyone else needs,” says Magnusson. “We should be striving for a city where nobody needs to have a private car, and you can get anywhere you need to go without having the annoyance and expense and all the other things that come with owning a car.”

Free or cheap parking is also a perk that benefits a relative minority of New Yorkers: Fewer than half, or 45 percent, of city households own a car, according to the Economic Development Corporation, and only 27 percent of New Yorkers actually use their cars to get to work, the same report found. Even those who do drive aren’t necessarily being well-served by the city’s current policies, according to transit experts, who point to research that indicates underpriced parking actually encourages more driving and makes congestion worse.

“That’s economics 101: the cheaper something is, the more people jump in on it,” says Rachel Weinberger, a transportation expert with the consulting firm Weinberger & Associates. “The more infrastructure you add, the more you are enabling that mode of transportation.”

‘Parking Exceptionalism’

The heightened push for congestion pricing has been driven, in part, by growing frustration over the state of New York’s crowded streets: while the actual number of cars entering Manhattan’s Central Business District each day dropped in 2016, travel speeds in the district have been slowing consistently since 2012, according to a mobility report released in June by the Department of Transportation. As the city’s population has grown, so has car ownership, with the number of household vehicle registrations up more than 8 percent since 2010, the same report found.

New York is also doing more business now than in previous years, with 620,000 jobs added since 2010, according to the DOT’s report. That increased economic activity has put more pressure on the curb, exacerbated by the growing popularity of online shopping, which translates to more deliveries being made, says Kathryn Wylde, head of the business advocacy group Partnership for New York City.

“The increase in freight activity alone is huge, and available curb space has not grown proportionality,” she says, noting that many commercial parking garages have been redeveloped into housing in recent years. “You have a situation that is contributing to driving up costs for consumers and businesses in the city, resulting in loss of productivity due to delays, and contributing terribly to congestion.”

To address this, Wylde would like to see the city reform its much-criticized parking placard system (something Mayor Bill de Blasio announced changes to on Thursday, including a move towards digital parking management). She also thinks the city should raise the cost of metered parking to encourage more turnover at the curb, opening up more spaces. Though DOT hiked its meter rates in August, many advocates feel the cost is still too low: An hour of parking in Midtown Manhattan starts at $4.50, while metered spots start at just $1.25 in other parts of the city.

“The basic problem in New York City is that parking is underpriced,” says Ben Fried, communications director with TransitCenter. “If you want to have parking be convenient, then parking is also probably going to be more expensive.”

In a statement, the DOT pointed to August’s meter rate increases as the latest in its “ongoing efforts” to find the right price for parking. “We continue to examine neighborhood parking and look to engage with communities to improve the functionality of their metered parking areas,” a spokesman for the agency said.

Cheap or free parking spots tend to attract drivers who park and stay put, leaving few or no open spaces in a given area. This leads to more people driving around, circling the neighborhood for an available spot—a behavior referred to as “cruising” that worsens congestion, according to research by the advocacy group Transportation Alternatives, which found that as much as 45 percent of traffic on some city streets is caused by drivers in search of a spot.

Raising the cost of parking spaces to be more in line with the demand of the area they’re located in could help, experts say. Similar to congestion pricing, charging more to park would encourage those who don’t want to pay the pricier fee to take transit instead, or to park further away in a different area where the demand for parking is lower and therefore, cheaper.

Of course, raising fees for any civic commodity creates questions of economic equity. While only about 22 percent of New York City residents who work drove to their jobs in 2017, more than a third of those drivers earned less than $35,000 a year, according to Census data.

The city has experimented with the idea of adjusting meter prices to better reflect demand: An initiative called PARK Smart was tested in several neighborhoods, which charged more for metered parking during the busiest times of day. Though the initiative was discontinued in some neighborhoods—including the Upper East Side, where the community board opposed it, according to reporting from Streetsblog—it’s still in place in Jackson Heights. There, DOT says it saw an estimated 12 percent increase in drivers finding spots within the PARK Smart area, and that the changes encouraged more drivers to park for shorter periods in most spots, “allowing more shoppers and visitors to park,” according to an evaluation of the program’s first year.

Donald Shoup, a parking policy expert and the author of The High Cost of Free Parking and Parking and the City, says the idea of charging more for parking is often met by pushback from the public.

“People think that parking is different from the rest of the economy and should be exempt” from market-based pricing, he says. He called this thinking “parking exceptionalism”—the belief that parking should be free, since it more or less always has been.

“Free on-street parking was the status quo, or has been the status quo, ever since the car was invented,” he says. “Insurance is not free. Tires aren’t free. The only thing that’s free is the parking, and parking is part of the problem.”

A potential solution, according to Fried, is for the city to prioritize curbside space for the most efficient modes of transit—for bus stops, delivery loading zones and even taxi pickup areas—giving less priority to individuals in cars. TransitCenter points to the city’s move last summer to convert nearly 300 public parking spots across the boroughs into designated parking for car-share services, as something the group would like to see more of.

“You don’t really want to think of parking in terms of, ‘How can we satisfy everyone who is looking for a parking space?’ Once you start thinking that way, you start making decisions that actually skew the system in a way that creates more traffic,” Fried says. “You really want to be thinking about it in terms of: ‘How do we efficiently allocate this public space?'”

Another potential starting point, he says, would be for the city start installing meters and charging for parking in in-demand areas where it’s currently free, beginning with the streets on the periphery of the zones that are already metered.

Neighborhood permits and complications

For residential neighborhoods, some have proposed a parking permit system, which would charge residents within a given area for a pass allowing them to park in a set number of resident-only spaces. At least two bills have been introduced in the City Council to do just that, including one sponsored by Council Member Mark Levine that would set up a permit system in northern Manhattan—spurred, he said, by concern that the imminent passage of congestion pricing will result in a deluge of drivers from other places parking their cars north of 60th Street to avoid paying the congestion fee.

At a Council hearing on the bill in June, Margaret Forgione, the DOT’s chief operations officer, said such a system would likely require approval from the state legislature, and said she worried such a plan would “pose a significant question of equity.”

“They favor local residents’ ability to store their cars in the program area, often one with good access to transit, while restricting the ability of others to park in the area,” she said, according to a transcript of the hearing. “These others can include those who may lack access to good transit and maybe more car dependent, and are driving to the area in order to then access transit or nearby jobs, schools or services.”

Weinberger agrees that a neighborhood-based permit system can cause issues, including for businesses that rely on customers from other parts of the city being able to park in the area, so thinks a more flexible, less geographically-dependent permit system is preferable. She also stresses that what works in one neighborhood may not in another, so parking prices should be sensitive to the ease and availability of other transit options in a given area, pointing to certain parts of the city, like eastern Queens, where it’s harder to get around without a car.

“An area like Times Square, that’s very easy to get to by transit and very crowded, should have much higher meter prices than, say, the Upper East Side,” she says.

Equity has been similarly raised as an argument against congestion pricing, with critics who say it would price out poor and middle-class New Yorkers from being able to drive into Manhattan. Pricier parking fees could raise those same fears, though demographics indicate that New York’s car-owning households tend to be of higher income than those without vehicles. Transit advocates also make the argument that free on-street parking spaces essentially amount to subsidized car storage the city pays to maintain, even if a majority of residents don’t drive.

“Everybody is paying it, regardless of whether or not you have access to a parking space,” Magnusson says.

Shoup has advocated for the use of Parking Benefit Districts, in which residents within a neighborhood can bid on a set number of parking permits based on how many available curbside spaces that district has. They’re priced based on market demand, determined by auctioning the permits off and doling them out to the highest bidders, but with each winning bidder paying the same price—whatever the lowest bid was.

The revenue from sale of the permits would then go to improvements within the district, like free WiFi or street cleaning, based on what residents would like to see. Such a system helps mitigate the community backlash that often comes with parking price changes, Shoup says, because residents can physically see the benefits the permits bring to the neighborhood. Without that, people don’t “have any real incentive to say yes.”

“If the city proposed putting parking meters in everywhere and raising the price, drivers would go crazy,” he says.

A hard sell

Charging people more for something that has otherwise always been cheap, or even free, can be a difficult sell. Vicki Been, law professor and faculty director at NYU’s Furman Center and former commissioner of the city’s Department of Housing Preservation and Development, says parking is a “really hot button issue” for New Yorkers, many of whom feel pinched financially on a number of other fronts associated with city living.

“What I heard a lot was, ‘It’s getting so hard for the middle class to live in the city and this is just one more thing now you’re going to make us pay for,'” she says. “I think parking is sometimes a stand-in for a set of other issues: people’s perception that property taxes are high, and income taxes are high… I think it’s a little bit of a catch-all category, and it’s kind of the straw that breaks the camel’s back.”

During her time at HPD, Been helped shepherd the passage of the city’s affordable housing plan, which included changes to longtime parking regulations that required developers provide a set amount of off-street parking spaces with most new projects—a provision researchers say makes housing more expensive and difficult to build.

“So often the parking spaces were just sitting empty, so it was a terrible waste of money and space,” says Been. The city’s zoning changes eliminated those requirements, called parking minimums, for affordable and senior housing projects in a number of areas the city deems well-served by transit, though the minimums are still in place elsewhere. Been thinks the city should now be “taking a hard look” at where else it could potentially remove or reduce those parking minimums, including when developers apply for zoning changes as part of a project, what planners refer to as spot zonings.

Other cities, like Mexico City and San Francisco, are eliminating parking minimums altogether. Not only do minimums make housing more costly, critics argue, they also incentivize driving and car ownership by making it easier for people to own and park a car. But Been thinks it would be a tall order to get rid of parking minimums completely in New York, considering the current state of the city’s subways and buses, as poor transit service often pushes people into cars.

“Given the difficulty with subway service these days, that would be a very hard sell,” she says. “I don’t think we can take on people’s cars and really hit hard on parking until we do better on transit.”

Magnusson, though, is a bit more optimistic, saying more cities are rethinking their parking policies and making bold changes in the face of climate change and growing congestion, despite the public pushback that can sometimes come with it.

“This is a regulation change that is beneficial in so many ways that cities are taking that risk,” she says.

22 thoughts on “
Free Parking:
Is it the Secret Ingredient
in NYC’s Traffic Problem?

  1. Pingback: Friday’s Headlines: ‘You Get a Car, And You Get a Car…’ Edition – Streetsblog New York City

  2. Until bus and subway service is dramatically improved and their is a serious investment made in the system, creating greater costs for driving and parking is mean-spirited. As it is, subways and buses are insanely overcrowded and overtaxed and the idea and this will just make things worse. In addition, weekend subway service is a disaster–with trains constantly being re-routed and many lines not running at all. Finally, any effort to create a dedicated revenue stream for transit through some form of congestion pricing, which I support, should take into account elderly and disabled travelers who are often unable to access subways, especially when many stations have no elevators and the ones that do exist are frequently subject to break-downs. All Excess-a-Ride vehicles should be exempt from additional charges as should elderly or disabled drivers and their caregivers.

    • These are fair points, John. But one point the proponents of a broader and more sophisticated system of parking fees make is that getting cars off the road — in part by charging more for parking so that spaces open up faster and reduce cruising — would speed buses up. It’s kind of a chicken or the egg thing.

  3. Residents who travel with pets or the elderly or very young children cannot possibly manage without their car and free parking .
    Who would benefit from eliminating free parking: commercial interests and tourists, not the hard working g middle and low income citizens of New York.


      • This is an old topic but do you people live in the real world or not? I do not want my 75 year old grandma moving about on the bus that always has one stupid gangster or homeless person acting crazy carrying bags with her if she can just drive instead. Congestion pricing and charging for more parking spots will never ever lead to bus or subway service improving. The MTA cannot possibly ever improve its service. Look at how long the mostly useless 2nd avenue subway line has been under construction for, 100 years?

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  5. anybody remember when traffic expert barnes, over half-century ago, said the way to greatly diminish NYC traffic problems was to ban trucks between 6am and 6pm. the teamsters said there’d be a nationwide strike, so the idea was never implemented

    • I would love to live in a city where I can get around easily and not pay a car note, car insurance, gas, registration, inspection, maintenance, parking meter, parking garages, etc. Truth is, public transportation isn’t reliable, and it’s quite disgusting. As a mother of 2, I would never be able to drop off one kid at school (I have to wait for them to open their doors, and run off to my next destination), drop off my infant at daycare, and then hope I get to work in time. I already pay enough to live in a damn BOX, ZERO green space for my kids to enjoy, if it ever comes to paying for parking in the street I might as well pack up and leave this city.

  6. This is an insane conversation and a waste of time. We are human beings, not ants you can study and try new experiments on. This is our lives here. Why in the world is there be a study to charge people to park on the streets when half of New Yorkers live in the outer boroughs where transportation is horrible or nonexistent? Have you people no conscience? Staten Island has one train. Queens is a two fare zone, with horrible scheduling and delays. How are people to move around with our proper transportation? What about the taxi cabs, Uber drivers? Where do they park? We are barely eking out an exist in this overly expensive dirty city. How much more can you tax working class people? As it is, we are one paycheck away from poverty. Can’t live without a roommate. Can’t purchase any of the luxuries or amenities the City have to offer. Only the rich can do that. New York will soon have the mid-class people leaving and working in NJ. What else will you tax water? Right you do that already. Schools? Yup, they do that too. Next is air. Ridiculous.

    • These people don’t actually live with the working class. They all live in Manhattan(Below 100th street of course) or perhaps Williamsburg always beg for more bike lanes so that no one can actually park when they have to go to work or get other things done. Who is riding their bike in the snow or taking the bus to the subway to transfer to another bus to go get groceries they need if they can just drive? Stupid

  7. My favorite unenforced NYC Parking law is: §4-08 (m)9 Parking, Stopping, Standing Additional parking rules “Street storage of vehicles prohibited. When parking is not otherwise restricted, no person shall park any vehicle in any area, including a residential area, in excess of seven consecutive days.” Throughout our metropolitan neighborhoods, how many times have we found the same vehicle in the same space for many days and weeks unmoved, only stored. Yes, registration and automobile insurance provide the privilege to operate, park and maintain a car. Taking a publicly available on road parking space is forbidden after “seven consecutive days.” Can you find a police officer or city agency accepting the role of enforcing the 7 day rule? Half of my neighborhood is filled with PA and FA license plated cars sitting on the street in the North East Bronx. The owners / operators do not live in the aforementioned states. They only seek to save money by registering the vehicle at a friends (or PO box) address to save hundreds or yes even thousands of dollars while turning our neighborhoods into long term parking lots to store their vehicles.

  8. We need a system like Citibike for cars. This can help the free parking issue by making congestion pricing more equitable and allowing the vast majority of New Yorkers without cars to use eco friendly vehicles.

  9. I have a driveway so a neighborhood parking tax/sticker wouldn’t effect where I park my car, but it would effect me in other ways. When I visit other neighborhoods on business or to to visit family and friends what happens? What about when friends and relatives drive to SI to visit me? This could be a nightmare. Huge sections of the outer boroughs are not served by subways or even adequate bus service and never will be. On SI and in most of eastern Queens you need a car to live. This is the reality of it.

    Car owners are a bit more well-off than other New Yorkers but that’s a good thing. These are the people who have enough disposable income to spend money in NYC’s shops and restaurants. More and more New Yorkers buy passenger vehicles every year. Contrary to what you’d think but true according to DMV stats. NYC passenger vehicle registrations up by 85,000 between 2014 and 2017.

    NYC 2017 = 1,923,041, NYC 2014 = 1,838,041
    2017 vehicle registrations –
    2014 vehicle registrations –

  10. Sometimes New York is behind other places. There are permit parking areas in San Francisco and Los Angeles. San Francisco has market based parking meter charges–$7 in peak hours. Los Angeles certainly doesn’t have the level of transit service that New York does.

    The way to open up parking spaces is to charge more for them. This would provide some free parking spaces at all times.

    • No people who need to pay for it will just lose more money out of their paycheck as they’re forced to live under more draconian measures. Just tax everyone at 95% and be done with it

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  12. Jemilah Magnusson, communications director at the Institute for Transportation & Development Policy – said:

    “Parking comes at the expense of things that everyone else needs,” says Magnusson. “We should be striving for a city where nobody needs to have a private car, and you can get anywhere you need to go without having the annoyance and expense and all the other things that come with owning a car.”


    There are sections of Staten Island that does even have sidewalks, lent alone nearby or even moderatly frequent bus or SIRT service. There are many places on Staten Island, and I sure it is the same within the outer-laying parts of Queens, the Bronx, and Brooklyn where a car is simply needed to reach places not well served by transit, in addition to a timely manner of travel.

    There are plenty of folks that do not travel to the Manhattan CBD in their cars for work trips or on a regular basis, but do need to use their cars to travel between the boroughs. There are a number of travel trips types that are not well served by public transit.

    It is funny though, for 35 years the City of New York was content to run the Staten Island Ferry with a late night and weekend schedule of ferries only every hour, while at the same time trying to urge folks to use transit, which on the island also followed a pathetic schedule. So a work trip that would take 35 minutes by car, could easily take 90 minutes to 2 hours by public transit and ferry. Helping to make the average time spent taking public transit one of the highest in the nation. Now it’s “we have to encourage transit usage” even in places with the fewest options, and while we’re at it, let’s increase the fees for parking!

  13. This is an old issue that really needs to be addressed. As I agree with much of the article I feel there is an important element left out; those of us who live in NYC. For those of us who live in Manhattan and own a car, we have to pay for a parking garage, expensive plus 18% tax rate for residents. We use the freak’n car to get out of the city so we can run our dogs, go to Costco for supplies, we come home and there isn’t a spot to even unload (load) without being ticketed. I don’t see why we can’t have free curb space to load and unload with a reasonable amount of time, an hour, or two. How about thinking about the residents of the city, who are already paying for garages and taxes, and yet we can’t get close our home to load or unload without being penalized more: we don’t have driveways where we can park

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